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Vendeur: buybuyzoe (1.521) 100%, Lieu où se trouve: Atelier Affiche Moulin port Salomon DAMIATTE, Lieu de livraison: Worldwide, Numéro de l'objet: 191903973673 AFFICHE ORIGINALE authentique certifiée pas de copie - pas de repro NO COPY certified AFFICHE TRES RARE - VERY RARE POSTER 54 x 79 CM ( + 4 cm de marge d'entoilage pour protection,encadrement ) entoilée par nos soins - on linen in our own studio quelques traces de plis d'époque , quelques petites restaurations imprimé litho lithographie VOUS POUVEZ NOUS CONTACTER POUR ENTOILAGE RESTAURATION AFFICHE (S) ANCIENNE (S) ANY QUESTION ABOUT POSTERS LINEN BACKING & RESTAURATION " ATELIER AFFICHES ANCIENNES " posterstudio@orange.fr ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- BSA Birmingham Small Arms Company ) Birmingham Small Arms Co Ltd Création Personnages clés J.D. Goodman, Sir Hallewell Rogers, Dudley Docker, Jack Sangster Siège social Birmingham, Angleterre (Royaume-Uni) Activité Armes à feu, munitions, vélos, motos, véhicules, équipements militaire La Birmingham Small Arms (BSA - The Birmingham Small Arms Company Limited) est un fabricant d'armes britannique, sous-traitant la fabrication du fusil Gewehr 71 (Mauser) ou du fusil-mitrailleur Lewis Mark I et ayant racheté la compagnie de production d'avions de chasse Airco. Sous le nom de BSA, elle produit des motocyclettes (elle est aussi propriétaire de Triumph), des cyclecars, des automobiles (Daimler) et a de nombreux autres secteurs d'activités industrielles comme l'aviation, le chromage, les -machines-outils et outils, les carrosseries d'automobiles et d'autobus, etc.Historique Cette firme est fondée à Birmingham (Angleterre), en 1861, pour fabriquer des armes. BSA-Daimler Dingo. Le 26 août 1940, la Luftwaffe lâche une pluie de bombes incendiaires sur l'usine BSA, qui possède le principal stock de poudre de l'Angleterre, entraînant la destruction de la seule usine d'armes opérationnelle et la perte 750 machines-outils, sans provoquer de pertes humaines. Deux autres raids aériens ont lieu les 19 et 22 novembre ; celui du 19 cause le plus de pertes, humaines et matérielles : les bâtiments datant de 1863 et 1915, des bâtiments voisins, 1 600 machines-outils, 53 employés tués, 89 blessés et l'arrêt de la production de fusils pendant trois mois1,2. BSA et le gouvernement décident alors d'éparpiller les usines sur le territoire, dans une vingtaine de villes différentes. La production reprend deux ans après les bombardements. Durant le conflit, BSA produit 1 250 000 fusils Lee-Enfield 0,303, 404 383 pistolets mitrailleurs Sten, 468 098 mitrailleuses Browning, plus de 100 000 pièce de rechange, 42 532 canons Hispano, 32 971 canons Oerlikon, 59 322 mitrailleuses Besa 7,9 mm, 3 218 mitrailleuses Besa 15 mm, 68 882 armes antichars, 126 334 motos, 128 000 vélos militaires (dont plus de 60 000 pliants, pour les parachutistes) et de 750 000 fusées anti-aériennes2. Après la guerre, la demande en motos s'accroît et l'usine BSA de Birmingham se tourne exclusivement vers cette production. BSA rachète New Hudson motorcycle and bicycle en 1950, et, en 1951 Triumph Motorcycles, ce qui amène BSA à devenir le plus gros constructeur de motos du monde à cette époque. Mais de mauvais investissements dans la branche moto conduisent l'entreprise à sa perte. En 1973, le gouvernement britannique lance un appel d'offre et la société est rachetée par Manganese Bronze Holdings (en), puis par Norton-Villiers. Depuis 1987, la société d'origine, The Birmingham Small Arms Company Limited, n'est plus qu'une filiale de Manganese Bronze, mais a perdu son nom. Secteurs de productionArmes à feu et munitions En 1863, l'infanterie turque passe une commande de 20 000 fusils, ce qui contribue à la renommée de l'entreprise mais, le marché des armes étant précaire, l'usine ferme en 1879. Néanmoins, en 1889, à la demande de l'armée britannique, la société se remet à la production du Lee-Metford (premier fusil à répétition) pour la ré-équiper en nouvelles armes. La demande est de 1 200 fusils par semaine3. BSA vend sa section munitions en 1897 à la Birmingham Metal and Munitions Company Limited, appartenant à Nobel-Dynamite Trust3. Durant la Première Guerre mondiale, BSA participe à l'effort de guerre en reprenant la production d'armes et de munitions. Dans les années 1930, le conseil d'administration fait entreposer le stock des invendus de la guerre 14-18 au cas où l'entreprise serait amenée à renouveler son devoir patriotique. Au déclenchement de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, BSA Guns Ltd est la seule usine du Royaume-Uni à produire des fusils alors que les usines Royal Ordnance ne commencent leur production qu'en 1941. BSA Guns Ltd produit la mitrailleuse Browning 0,303 pour l'armée de l'Air, à la vitesse de 600 unités par semaine, en mars 1939, et Browning culmine à 16 390 en mars 1942. En 1961, année du centenaire de la marque, BSA cesse la production d'armes militaires mais continue à fabriquer des armes de sport. En 1986, BSA Guns est liquidé mais l'actif est racheté et une nouvelle société, BSA Guns (UK) Ltd, continue la fabrication d'armes à air comprimé. Les droits BSA sont rachetés par Gamo. Quelques armes Un Lee-Metford série 2. Un Mauser Gewehr 71. Vélos Le Otto Dicycle. En 1880, BSA se lance dans la fabrication de vélos3, l'usine d'armes s'avérant remarquablement adaptable à la fabrication de pièces de vélo pour usiner des pièces standards à bas prix. BSA fabrique le Otto Dicycle4. Un peu plus tard, la société commence à fabriquer des bicyclettes pour son propre compte, pour remplacer le grand-bi qui n'est pas très stable. La production de vélos cesse en 1887 mais la reprend en 1908. En 1893, l'usine produit des moyeux de bicyclettes et autres pièces détachées jusqu'en 1936. En 1907, BSA rachète la société The Eadie Manufacturing Company et commence la production du Eadie, vélo à deux pignons (deux vitesses) et freinage en rétropédalage. Ensuite, elle produit, sous licence, le Sturmey Archer Type X, un système à 3 vitesses inclus dans le moyeu de la roue arrière. Ces activités cessent entre 1953 et 1955. BSA Cycles Ltd est créée en 1919 pour la fabrication de vélos et de motos. En 1949, BSA sort son premier catalogue de vélos Sunbeam et produit son propre dérailleur 4 Stars avec un moyeu à 4 pignons5. En 1952, BSA créé son équipe cycliste professionnelle dont le meneur/finisseur est Bob Maitland, un dessinateur du bureau de conception de la marque5,2. En 1955, BSA cesse sa production de moyeux à vitesses intégrées6. La filiale de vélos est vendue à Raleigh en 1957, après la séparation de la production vélo / moto en 19537. Raleigh continue la production dans les ateliers de BSA jusque dans les années 1960. Motos Document du M.N.B délivré à l'estafette Albert Demuyser l'autorisant à circuler en moto BSA. Articles détaillés : Liste des motos BSA (en), Liste des motos AMC (en) En 1905, la première moto expérimentale est construite. Une unité de production voit le jour en 1910 et la BSA 3½ est présentée à Londres, en 1911, et tous les exemplaires sont vendus entre 1911 et 1913. En 1919, BSA sort sa première moto avec un moteur en V à 50° de 770 cm3 (6-7 hp), la Model E8,9. Le gouvernement réquisitionne, au début de la guerre 39-45, choisissent les 690 BSA M20 (500 cm3 à soupapes latérales) que BSA a en stock pour équiper les forces armées britanniques et en commandent 8 000 autres. L'Afrique du Sud, la Irlande, l'Inde, la Suède et la Hollande optent également pour cette machine. En 1953, BSA fête la sortie de la 100 000 e BSA Bantam (en). Les droits BSA sont rachetés par Norton Villiers Triumph. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Triumph Tigress/BSA Sunbeam BSA Sunbeam scooter Triumph Tigress scooter The Triumph Tigress, also sold as the BSA Sunbeam, was a scooter designed to have good performance and handling for the motorcycle enthusiast. The entry of the BSA group into the scooter field was announced by Edward Turner in October 1958. The 250 cc model would have a cruising speed of 55 to 60 mph (89 to 97 km/h) and petrol consumption of 120 miles per imperial gallon (2.4 L/100 km; 100 mpg-US). A prototype 250 cc BSA Sunbeam was displayed at the 1958 Earl's Court Cycle and Motor Cycle Show.[1] Manufacture started in late 1959, but delivery difficulties were acknowledged due to problems with recruiting labour, although it was claimed that the group had a manufacturing capacity of 50,000 machines a year.[2] The design by Edward Turner drew on Triumph's long experience of building fast motorcycles, and was sold under two brand names to take advantage of established distribution networks. This badge engineering was one of the last uses of the Sunbeam marque. The differences between the BSA Sunbeam and Triumph Tigress were entirely cosmetic - the former in polychromatic green paint, also two-tone red and cream, with a BSA badge; the latter in a shell blue with Triumph badging. The scooter was available with a 250 cc four-stroke twin (10 hp) or 175 cc two-stroke single-cylinder engine (7,5 hp). Both engines were forced-air-cooled and curbed to keep low petrol consumption. The two-stroke was a development of the BSA Bantam engine but the four-stroke was a completely new parallel-twin with gear rather than chain drive to the gearbox. The contact-breaker fed two ignition coils, each of which had a lead to its spark plug without a distributor. Drive to the rear wheel was by a fully enclosed chain in an oil bath. Both versions had four, foot-operated gears. Some of the 250 twins were fitted with an electric starter and a 12 volt (not 6 volt) electrical system. The 250 twin sold well and could do 70 mph (105 km/h) with efficient suspension and good roadholding despite having only 10-inch wheels. The weight was low in comparison to other scooters (100/110 kg).[3] The only problem was build quality: it was sometimes said that a Tigress was a joy to own so long as someone else was paying the repair bills. The 250 cc four-stroke model was discontinued in 1964, the 175 cc two-stroke model in 1965. Later in the 1960s, despite internal opposition from those who felt that scooters would dilute the macho image of the brand, Triumph (owned by BSA) produced another scooter and a motor tricycle for "shoppers". The Triumph Tina and the Ariel 3 tricycle (BSA also owned the Ariel marque) were intended to tap into the market segment for a convenient 'shopping basket'. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Sunbeam (motorcycle) Mist Green S7 showing shaft-driven rear wheel and balloon tyres captured on highway, central England in 2007 Sunbeam was a British manufacturing marque that produced bicycles and motorcycles from 1912 to 1956. Originally independent, it was owned by BSA from 1943. Latterly Sunbeam is perhaps most famous for its S7 model, a balloon-tyred shaft-drive motorcycle with an overhead valve in-line twin engine. History Sunbeam was founded by John Marston, who was born in Ludlow, Shropshire, UK in 1836 of a minor landowning family. In 1851, aged 15, he was sent to Wolverhampton to be apprenticed to Edward Perry as a japanware manufacturer. At the age of 23 he left and set up his own japanning business, John Marston Ltd, making any and every sort of domestic article. He did so well that when Perry died in 1871 Marston incorporated his company into his own. The company began making bicycles and, on the suggestion of his wife Ellen, Marston adopted the trademark brand "Sunbeam". Consequently, the Paul Street works were called "Sunbeamland". John Marston was a perfectionist, and this was reflected in the high build-quality of the Sunbeam bicycle, which had an enclosure around the drive chain in which an oil bath kept the chain lubricated and clean. They were made until 1936. From 1903 John Marston Ltd had made some early experiments in adding engines to bicycles but they were unsuccessful, one man being killed. John Marston's aversion to motorcycles did not encourage further development, and so the Sunbeam Motor Car Company Ltd was founded in 1905. However, suffering from a slump which hit car making, Marston was pushed into making motorcycles from 1912 onwards (at the age of 76), for which there was a large and increasing market. Following in the tradition of their bicycles, the motorcycles were of high-quality, usually with a single cylinder, and known as the "Gentleman's Machine". Sunbeam motorcycles performed well in the early days of the famous TT (Tourist Trophy) races in the Isle of Man. After the First World War the Marston company was sold to a consortium. In 1919, the consortium became part of Nobel Industries Limited. In 1927 Nobel Industries amalgamated with Brunner Mond Ltd. to form Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI). In this huge organization motorcycles were a small part. The BSA Sunbeam badge Another Marston company product line started in 1931, with marine outboard engines first marketed as Marston Seagull, later known as British Seagull.[1] In 1937 the Sunbeam motorcycle trademark was sold to Associated Motor Cycles Ltd (AMC) which continued to make Sunbeam bicycles and motorcycles until 1939. AMC's core business was the manufacture of Matchless and AJS motorcycles. Some years after it sold Sunbeam, AMC went on to own Norton, James and Francis-Barnett. In 1943 AMC sold the Sunbeam name to BSA and Sunbeam Cycles Ltd came into being. Sunbeams were built not at BSA's main factory at Small Heath, Birmingham, but at another BSA factory in Redditch, Worcestershire. Three Sunbeam motorcycle models were produced from 1946 to 1956, inspired by BMW motorcycles supplied to the Wehrmacht during the Second World War. They were followed by two scooter models from 1959 to 1964. ModelsSunbeam bicycles Sunbeam bicycles (always "The Sunbeam") were made in Wolverhampton from 1887 to 1937.[2] As the factory was used to sheet-metal working and japanning (the Victorian equivalent of today's oven-baked enamel or 'powder coating') the construction of cycles presented few problems. At first of similar design to other makers' machines, the company adopted a version of Harrison Carter's Little oil-bath chaincase in the mid-1890s. The cycle was re-designed so that the oil contained in the oilbath lubricated the bottom bracket, chain and rear hub, the only cycle so designed to date. The Sunbeam was designed to last a gentleman a lifetime and such is their longevity that models a century old still have their original finish, chain and transmission. The top model was the "Golden", with alloy wheel-rims, epicyclic two- and three-speed gears and real gold-leaf pin-striping. The "Royal" was of the same quality but had red lining and simpler equipment. The 'RR' model was used at the Olympics in 1929 and the later 'Golden Light Roadster' was made from the latest 'Cromoly' tubing. These and other models were made alongside the motor cycles at "Sunbeamland", Pool Street, Wolverhampton until 1937 and subsequently, to the same designs, by AMC until 1943 and BSA until 1957. 1929 Sunbeam Many John Marston Sunbeam motorcycle models were produced.The first was a 350 cc in 1912 followed by a range of 500 cc singles and some v-twins. In 1924, a new model numbering system was introduced; Sunbeam Models 1 through 11. Other higher-numbered models were produced in later years. The majority had single-cylinder engines developing relatively low power, though winning the TT races often, the last time in 1929. A hallmark of all Marston Sunbeams was the superb quality and finish in black with gold-leaf pinstriping. S model motorcyclesMain article: Sunbeam S7 and S8 A mildly customised Sunbeam S7 motorcycle. The S models were manufactured from 1946 to 1956. There were three: the S7, S8 and S7 Deluxe. All three were very expensive but with only modest performance which resulted in low sales. The unusual engine layout was the S7's notable feature with an engine and drive similar to that of a car. The engine was a longitudinally mounted inline vertical OHC 500 cc twin with coil ignition and wet sump lubrication which, though a dry clutch, drove a shaft drive to the rear wheel. The inline engine made this technologically feasible (flat-twin "boxer" engines on BMW motorcycles had already used shaft drives). Unlike BMW, who sensibly specified a bevel gear crown-&-pinion drive to the rear wheel, Sunbeam used worm gearing with a bronze spiral gear; by reputation the soft bronze gave rapid wear of drive components. The original S7 was produced from 1946 to 1948. In 1949, the sportier S8, with standard-sized wheels rather than the fat tyres of the S7, and BSA type front forks, was produced. The S7 design was improved and then sold as the S7 Deluxe. The original S7 was available only in black, whereas the standard colours for the S8 were "Polychromatic Grey" or black. The S7 Deluxe came in either "Mist Green" or black. If sold abroad then BSA would supply the Sunbeam in almost any colour that BSA used. Although the early S7 was not a good seller or mechanically very sound, it is the most sought after and commands a premium over the S7 Deluxe and the S8. When Sunbeam production came to an end, BSA sold the remaining stock of parts to Stewart Engineering, and this company is now the sole supplier of spares for post-war Sunbeam motorcycles. B model scooters 1959 to 1964 B1, B2 Scooters (see BSA Sunbeam). ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Birmingham Small Arms Company The Birmingham Small Arms Company Limited (BSA) Type Listed company Fate Acquired 1973 by Manganese Bronze Holdings Founded Gun Quarter, Birmingham, England, 1861 Headquarters Birmingham, UK Key people J.D. Goodman (Chairman 1863–1900)Sir Hallewell Rogers (Chairman 1906–28)Dudley Docker, Sir Bernard Docker (Chairman 1940–56)Jack Sangster (Chairman 1956–61) Products firearmsammunitionbicyclesmotorcyclesvehiclesmilitary equipment Subsidiaries [show] Footnotes / references BSA brand Bicycles are currently manufactured and distributed in India by TI Cycles of IndiaMotorcycles bearing the brand BSA were briefly manufactured after 1979 by a business now known as BSA RegalBSA brand air rifles are manufactured in Birmingham by a subsidiary of Spanish manufacturer Gamo This article is not about Gamo subsidiary BSA Guns (UK) Limited or BSA Company or its successors. The Birmingham Small Arms Company Limited (BSA) was a major British industrial combine, a group of businesses manufacturing military and sporting firearms; bicycles; motorcycles; cars; buses and bodies; steel; iron castings; hand, power, and machine tools; coal cleaning and handling plants; sintered metals; and hard chrome process. At its peak, BSA (who also owned Triumph) was the largest motorcycle producer in the world. In the late 1950s and early 1960s poor management and failure to develop new products in the motorcycle division led to a dramatic decline of sales to its major USA market. The management had failed to appreciate the importance of the resurgent Japanese motorcycle industry, leading to problems for the entire BSA group. A government-organised rescue operation in 1973 led to the takeover of remaining operations by what is now Manganese Bronze Holdings, then owners of Norton-Villiers, and over the following decade further closures and dispersals. The original company, The Birmingham Small Arms Company Limited, remains a subsidiary of Manganese Bronze but its name was changed in 1987. Manganese Bronze continues to operate former BSA subsidiary Carbodies, now known as LTI Limited, manufacturers of London Taxicabs and formerly the largest wholly British-owned car manufacturer. (Manganese Bronze is now owned by the Chinese company Geely). History of the BSA industrial group BSA began in June 1861 in the Gun Quarter, Birmingham, England founded specifically to manufacture guns by machinery. It was formed by a group of fourteen gunsmith members of the Birmingham Small Arms Trade Association. The market had moved against British gunsmiths following the outbreak of the Crimean War in 1854 because the Board of Ordnance's Royal Small Arms Factory at Enfield had introduced machinery made in the USA and Enfield's greatly increased output had been achieved with reduced reliance on skilled craftsmen.[1] The War Office provided this new grouping of gunsmiths free access to technical drawings and their facilities at their Enfield factory. The newly formed company purchased 25 acres (10 ha) of land at Small Heath, Birmingham, built a factory there and made a road on the site calling it Armoury Road. This machinery brought to Birmingham manifested the principle of the inter-changeability of parts.[2] Firearms BSA's resort to the use of machinery was rewarded in 1863 with an order for 20,000 Turkish infantry rifles. The management of the BSA Company was changed at an Extraordinary Meeting called on 30 September 1863 when the Company was changed from being run by a committee to that of an elected Board of Directors, Joseph Wilson, Samuel Buckley, Isaac Hollis, Charles Playfair, Charles Pryse, Sir John Ratcliffe, Edward Gem, and J.F. Swinburn under the chairmanship of John Dent Goodman.[3] The first War Office contract was not agreed until 1868. In 1879 the factory, without work, was shut for a year. The military arms trade was precarious.[4] New venturesBicycles The next year BSA branched out into bicycle manufacture.[4] The gun factory proved remarkably adaptable to the manufacture of cycle parts. What cycles needed was large quantities of standard parts accurately machined at low prices.[2] In 1880 BSA manufactured the Otto Dicycle, In the 1880s the company began to manufacture safety bicycles on their own account and not until 1905 was the company's first experimental motorcycle constructed. Bicycle production ceased in 1887 as the company concentrated on producing the Lee–Metford magazine-loading rifle for the War Office which was re-equipping the British Army with it. The order was for 1,200 rifles per week. BSA recommenced manufacturing bicycles on their own behalf from 1908. BSA Cycles Ltd was set up in 1919 for the manufacture of both bicycles and motorcycles. BSA sold the bicycle business to Raleigh in 1957 after separating the bicycle and motorcycle business in 1953. Bicycle components In 1893 BSA commenced making bicycle hubs[3] and continued to supply the cycle trade with bicycle parts up to 1936. BSA bought The Eadie Manufacturing Company of Redditch in 1907 and so began to manufacture the Eadie two speed hub gear and the Eadie coaster brake hub. BSA also signed an agreement with the Three Speed Gear Syndicate in 1907 to manufacture a 3 speed hub under licence. This was later classified as the Sturmey Archer Type X. BSA introduced a 'Duo' hub in the late 1930s which was capable of one fixed gear and one gear with a freewheel. All BSA hub gear production temporarily ceased in 1939, until they recommenced making their 3 speed hub around 1945. The Eadie coaster hub made a brief return in 1953 on two BSA bicycle models. BSA forever ceased production of their hub gears in 1955. Ammunition BSA sold its ammunition business in 1897 to Birmingham Metal and Munitions Company Limited part of the Nobel-Dynamite Trust, through Kynoch a forerunner of ICI.[5] Sparkbrook In 1906 Frank Dudley Docker was appointed a director of the company. By the autumn of that year BSA was in some difficulty. They had purchased the Sparkbrook Royal Small Arms Factory from the War Office, and in return, the War Office undertook to give BSA a quarter of all orders for Lee–Enfield rifles. But, the War Office did not honour their undertaking.[6] The ensuing financial crisis did not prevent BSA from signing an agreement to amalgamate with another bicycle component manufacturer, the Eadie Manufacturing Company of Redditch, on 11 February 1907. That decision was ratified by the shareholders of both companies at separate Extraordinary General Meetings held in the Grand Hotel, Birmingham on 27 February 1907. Albert Eadie became a BSA director, a post he held until his death in 1931.[3] Motorcycles Motor bicycles were added to bicycle products in 1910. The BSA 3½ hp was exhibited at the 1910 Olympia Show, London for the 1911 season. The entire BSA production sold out in 1911, 1912 and 1913.[3] Motor carsBSA carsMain article: BSA cars In an effort to make use of the Sparkbrook factory BSA established a motorcar department there. An independent part of it was occupied by Lanchester Motor Company. The first prototype automobile was produced in 1907. The following year, marketed under BSA Cycles Ltd, the company sold 150 automobiles and again began producing complete bicycles on its own account. By 1909 it was clear the new motorcar department was unsuccessful; an investigation committee reported to the BSA Board on the many failures of its management and their poor organisation of production. Daimler vehiclesMain article: Daimler Company Dudley Docker had joined the board in 1906 and was appointed deputy chairman of BSA in 1909. He had made a spectacular financial success of a merger of five large rolling-stock companies in 1902 and become the leader of the period's merger movement. Believing he could buy the missing management skills that could not be found within BSA he started merger talks with The Daimler Company Limited of Coventry. Daimler and Rover were then the largest British car producers. Daimler was immensely profitable. After its capital reconstruction in 1904 Daimler's profits were 57 per cent and 150 per cent returns on invested capital in 1905 and 1906. The attraction for Daimler shareholders was the apparent stability of BSA.[7] So in 1910 BSA purchased Daimler with BSA shares but Docker who negotiated the arrangements either ignored or failed in his assessment of their consequences for the new combine. The combine was never adequately balanced or co-ordinated. One of the financial provisions obliged Daimler to pay BSA an annual dividend of £100,000 representing approximately 40 per cent of the actual cash BSA had put into Daimler. This financial burden deprived Daimler of badly needed cash to fund development, forcing the Daimler company to borrow money from the Midland Bank.[8] BSA had still not recovered financially from the earlier purchase of Royal Small Arms factory at Sparkbrook and BSA were not in a position to finance Daimler, nor had either company ample liquid resources. BSA went ahead with motorcycle production in 1910, their first model available for the 1911 season. In 1913 the BSA group were compelled through pressure from the Midland Bank to make a capital issue of 300,000 preference shares. In the short term this was to solve the liquidity issue but further diluted the group's capitalisation.[9] Dudley Docker retired as a BSA director in 1912 and installed Lincoln Chandler on the BSA board as his replacement. Dudley Docker liked to draw a comparison between the BSA~Daimler merger he engineered and that of his 1902 merger of Metropolitan Carriage Wagon & Finance Company and Patent Shaft. However, there was not the integration of facilities in the BSA~Daimler case, nor was there a reorganisation of either BSA or Daimler and in view of the earlier criticism contained in the 1909 report of the investigation committee, BSA continued to produce cars of their own using Daimler engines. In 1913 Daimler employed 5,000 workers to manufacture 1,000 vehicles, an indication that things were not well.[10] Steel bodies In 1912, BSA would be one of two automobile manufacturers pioneering the use of all-steel bodies, joining Hupmobile in the US.[11] First World War During the First World War, the company returned to arms manufacture and greatly expanded its operations. BSA produced rifles, Lewis guns, shells, motorcycles and other vehicles for the war effort. Inter-war years 1935 magazine advert for the BSA range of motorcycles and 3-wheeler cars MotorcyclesMain article: List of BSA motorcycles In November 1919 BSA launched their first 50 degree vee-twin, Model E, 770cc side valve (6-7 hp) motorcycle for the 1920 season.[12] The machine had interchangeable valves, total loss oil system with mechanical pump and an emergency hand one. Retail price was £130. Other features were Amac carburettor, chain drive, choice of magneto or Magdyno, 7-plate clutch, 3 speed gear box with kickstarter and new type of cantilever fork[13] AviationMain article: Daimler Airway During the war Daimler had built enormous numbers of aero engines and aircraft and by the end was building 80 Airco de Havilland bombers a month. In February 1920 BSA amalgamated[14] with what was the world's largest aircraft manufacturer, Aircraft Manufacturing Company (Airco), Airco's main plant at Hendon had employed between 7,000 and 8,000 people.[15] The Airco group of companies had turned out a new aircraft every 45 minutes.[16] Within days BSA discovered Airco was in a far more serious financial state than George Holt Thomas had revealed. Holt Thomas was immediately dropped from his new seat on the BSA board and all BSA's new acquisitions were placed in the hands of a liquidator. Some of the businesses were allowed to continue for some years, Aircraft Transport and Travel's assets being eventually rolled into Daimler Air Hire to make Daimler Airway Limited. BSA failed to pay a dividend for the following four years while it tried to recover from its losses.[17] Some relief was achieved when in March 1924 Daimler Airway and its management became the major constituent of Imperial Airways. As well as the Daimler car range, BSA Cycles Ltd re-entered the car market under the BSA name in 1921 with a V-twin engined light car followed by four-cylinder models up to 1926, when the name was temporarily dropped. In 1929 a new range of 3- and 4-wheel cars appeared and production of these continued until 1936. By 1930 the BSA Group's primary activities were BSA motorcycles and Daimler vehicles.[18] Car production under the BSA name ceased in the 1930s. LanchesterMain article: Lanchester Motor Company In 1931 the Lanchester Motor Company at Sparkbrook was acquired[19][20][note 1] and production of their cars transferred to Daimler's Coventry works. The first new product was a version of the Daimler Light Twenty or 16/20 and called Lanchester 15/18. Badge engineering 1931 Lanchester 15/18 October 1931 2504 cc 6 Lanchester Ten September 1932 1203 cc 4 Daimler Fifteen September 1932 1805 cc 6 BSA Ten October 1932 1185 cc 4 Armaments In the 1930s, the board of directors authorised expenditure on bringing their arms-making equipment back to use – it had been stored at company expense since the end of the Great War in the belief that BSA might again be called upon to perform its patriotic duty. In 1939, BSA acquired the blueprints for a submachine gun designed by Hungarian arms designer Pál Király as well as the rights to manufacture it. Examples were produced in 9mm Mauser Export calibre according to Kiraly's design. It was estimated that these arms would only cost 5 pounds each to manufacture. However, at the time, submachine guns were viewed as "gangster weapons" and plans to manufacture it were shelved.[21] Second World War By the outbreak of the Second World War, BSA Guns Ltd at Small Heath, was the only factory producing rifles in the UK. The Royal Ordnance Factories did not begin production until 1941. BSA Guns Ltd was also producing .303 Browning machine guns for the Air Ministry at the rate of 600 guns per week in March 1939 and Browning production was to peak at 16,390 per month by March 1942. The armed forces had chosen the 500 cc side-valve BSA M20 motorcycle as their preferred machine. On the outbreak of war the Government requisitioned the 690 machines BSA had in stock as well as placing an order for another 8,000 machines. South Africa, Éire, India, Sweden and the Netherlands also wanted machines. The Government passed the Emergency Powers (Defence) Act 1939 on 24 August allowing the drafting of defence regulations affecting food, travel, requisitioning of land and supplies, manpower and agricultural production. A second Emergency Powers (Defence) Act was passed on 22 May 1940 allowing the conscription of labour. The fall of France had not been anticipated in Government planning and the encirclement of a large part of the British Expeditionary Force into the Dunkirk pocket resulted in a hasty evacuation of that part of the B.E.F following the abandonment of their equipment. The parlous state of affairs "no arms, no transport, no equipment" in the face of the threat of imminent invasion of Britain by Nazi forces was recorded by the Chief of the Imperial General Staff Field Marshal Sir Alan Brooke, 1st Viscount Alanbrooke in his diary entries of the 1/2 July 1940.[22] The creation of the Home Guard (initially as the Local Defence Volunteers) following Anthony Eden's broadcast appeal to the Nation on Tuesday 14 May 1940 also created further demand for arms production to equip this new force. BSA, as the only rifle producer in Britain, had to step up to the mark and the workforce voluntarily went onto a seven-day week.[23] Motorcycle production was also stepped up from 500 to 1,000 machines per week which meant a finished machine coming off the production line every 5 minutes. The motorcycle department had been left intact in 1939 due to demand which was doubled following Dunkirk. At the same time BSA staff were providing lectures and demonstrations on motorcycle riding and maintenance to 250,000 officers and men in all parts of the UK. The BSA factory at Small Heath was bombed by the Luftwaffe on 26 August 1940 resulting in one high explosive bomb and a shower of incendiaries hitting the main barrel mill which was the only one operating on service rifles in the country, causing the unaffordable loss of 750 machine tools but fortunately no loss of life.[24] Two further air raids took place on 19 and 22 November 1940.[25] The air raid of 19 November did the most damage, causing loss of production and trapping hundreds of workers. Two BSA night-shift electricians, Alf Stevens and Alf Goodwin, helped rescue their fellow workers. Alf Stevens was awarded the George Medal for his selfless acts of bravery in the rescue and Alf Goodwin was awarded the British Empire Medal.[citation needed] Workers involved in the works Civil Defence were brought in to help search for and clear bodies to get the plant back into production. The net effect of the November raids was to destroy machine shops in the four-storey 1915 building, the original 1863 gunsmiths' building and nearby buildings, 1,600 machine tools, kill 53 employees, injure 89, 30 of them seriously and halt rifle production for three months. The Government Ministry of Supply and BSA immediately began a process of production dispersal throughout Britain, through the shadow factory scheme. Factories were set up at Tipton, Dudley, Smethwick, Blackheath, Lye, Kidderminster, Stourport, Tyseley, and Bromsgrove to manufacture Browning machine guns, Stoke, Corsham, and Newcastle-under-Lyme produced the Hispano cannon, Leicester and Studley Road produced the Besa machine gun, Ruislip produced the Oerlikon 20mm cannon, Stafford produced rocket projectiles, Tamworth produced two-pounder gun carriages, Mansfield produced the Boys Anti-tank gun and Shirley produced rifles. These were dispersal factories which were in addition to Small Heath and the other BSA factories opened in the two years following the 1940 blitz. At its peak Small Heath was running 67 factories engaged in war production. BSA operations were also dispersed to other companies under licence. In 1941 BSA was approached to produce a new pedal cycle with a maximum weight allowance of only 22 lb especially for airborne use. This required a new concept in frame design which BSA found, producing a machine which weighed 21 lb, one pound less than the design specification and which also exceeded the design requirement for an effective life of 50 miles many times over. Over 60,000 folding bicycles were produced, a figure equal to half the total production of military bicycles during World War II. BSA also produced folding motorcycles for the Airborne Division. In late 1942 BSA examined the Special Operations Executive designed Welgun with a view to manufacture. BSA were willing to manufacture the gun in the quantities required starting April 1943 but the cheaper and less accurate Sten Mk IV was adopted for production by the Ministry of Supply.[26] BSA bought the Sunbeam motorcycles and bicycle business from Associated Motor Cycles Ltd in 1943 and then Ariel Motors Ltd in 1944. During the course of the conflict BSA produced 1,250,000 Lee–Enfield .303 service rifles, 404,383 Sten sub-machine guns, 468,098 Browning machine guns plus spares equivalent to another 100,000, 42,532 Hispano cannon, 32,971 Oerlikon cannon, 59,322 7.9 mm Besa machine guns, 3,218 15 mm Besa machine guns, 68,882 Boys Anti-tank guns, 126,334 motorcycles, 128,000 military bicycles (over 60,000 of which were folding paratrooper bicycles), 10,000,000 shell fuse cases, 3,485,335 magazines and 750,000 anti-aircraft rockets were supplied to the armed forces.[23] At the same time other parts of the Group were having similar problems. Before World War II Daimler had been linked with other Coventry motor manufacturers in a government-backed scheme for aero engine manufacture and had been allocated two shadow factories. Apart from this, BSA-owned Daimler was producing Scout Cars and Daimler Mk I Armoured Cars which had been designed by BSA at Small Heath not Coventry as well as gun turrets, gun parts, tank transmissions, rocket projectiles and other munitions. This activity had not gone unnoticed by the enemy, which made Radford Works a target in the Coventry air raids. Radford Works received direct hits in four separate air raids during 1940. None of these attacks were to seriously disrupt production, however two more serious air raids were carried out in April 1941 which destroyed half the factory. In all it is estimated that 170 bombs containing 52,000 lbs of explosive were dropped on Radford Works as well as the thousands of incendiaries. Like BSA, Daimler had to find dispersal units.[24] A back-handed compliment was paid by Field Marshal Rommel to the workers at Radford Works when he used a captured Daimler Scout to escape following his defeat at El Alamein. Post-war As the result of increased post war demand the Small Heath, Birmingham factory was turned over entirely to motorcycle production. BSA produced the first Sunbeam bicycle catalogue in 1949 and produced its own '4 Star' derailleur gear with an associated splined cassette hub and 4 sprocket cassette.[27] This design was different from the 1930s Bayliss Wiley cassette hub which had a threaded sprocket carrier. BSA bought New Hudson motorcycle and bicycle business in 1950 and followed this up in 1951 with the purchase of Triumph Motorcycles which brought Jack Sangster onto the BSA board. The effect of this acquisition was to make BSA into the largest producer of motorcycles in the world at that time. 1952 saw BSA establish a Professional Cycling Team. Bob Maitland a successful amateur cyclist and the highest placed British finisher in the 1948 Olympic Games road race and now an independent rider in the BSA team was a BSA employee working in the design office as a draughtsman. It was Bob Maitland who was responsible for the design of post war BSA range of lightweight sports bicycles based on his knowledge of cycling.[25] Bob Maitland also made some of the components used on the bicycles of the professional team which were not standard production machines. In the 1952 Tour of Britain Road Race run between Friday 22 August and Saturday 6 September, involving 14 individual stages and covering a total race distance of 1,470 miles, the BSA team of Bob Maitland, “Tiny” Thomas, Pete Proctor, Alf Newman and Stan Jones won the overall team race and Pete Proctor “King of the Mountains” classification. The riders also enjoyed success on the individual stages of the race. The team competed in four further events, 14 September Tour of the Chilterns, 1st “Tiny” Thomas and Team Prize, 21 September Weston-Super-Mare Grand Prix, Team Prize, 28 September Staffordshire Grand Prix, 1st Bob Maitland and Team Prize, 5 October Tour Revenge Race, Dublin, 1st “Tiny” Thomas and Team prize.[28] In 1953 BSA withdrew motorcycle production from BSA Cycles Ltd, the company it has established in 1919, by creating BSA Motorcycles Ltd. BSA also produced its 100,000th BSA Bantam motorcycle, a fact celebrated at the 1953 motorcycle show with a visit by Sir Anthony Eden to the BSA stand. In 1953 the BSA Professional Cycling Team was managed by Syd Cozens. Successes were 5/6 April Bournemouth Two Day Road Race, 1st Bob Maitland, 12 April Dover to London 63 Miles Road Race, 1st Stan Jones, 31 May Langsett 90 Miles Road Race, 1st Bob Maitland and “King of the Mountains”, 7 June Tour of the Wrekin, 1st Bob Maitland, 12 July Severn Valley 100 Miles Road Race, 1st “Tiny” Thomas, 19 July Jackson Trophy, Newcastle, Team Prize, 9 August Les Adams Memorial 80 Miles Road Race, 1st Alf Newman, Team Prize, “King of the Mountains” Arthur Ilsley, 30 August Weston-Super-Mare 100 Miles Grand Prix, 1st Bob Maitland, Team Prize. The team also competed in the 1,624 mile, 12 stage, 1953 Tour of Britain Road Race. The 1953 line up had changed as Arthur Ilsley replaced Pete Proctor in the team. “Tiny” Thomas won the overall individual classification, the Team were runners-up in the team competition and Arthur Ilsley was 3rd in the “King of the Mountains” competition. Bob Maitland also had notable success by winning the Independent National Championship.[29] 1954 saw the introduction of the BSA Quick Release 3 Speed hub gear. It was a split axle three speed gear intended for use with bicycles equipped with oil bath chainguards. The original BSA 3 speed hub gear had been made under licence from the Three-Speed Gear Syndicate since 1907. The design was later to be classified as the Sturmey-Archer 'Type X', but all BSA hub gear production ceased in 1955[30] Sir Bernard Docker remained chairman of BSA until 1956 when the BSA removed him. In an acrimonious dispute conducted in the media the matter was brought to the BSA shareholders at the Annual General Meeting where the decision of the Board was upheld. Another significant departure for the fortune of the BSA Group but less controversial was the retirement on ill health grounds of James Leek CBE, Managing Director from 1939 until his retirement. Sir Bernard Docker was replaced as Chairman of the BSA Board by Jack Sangster.[3] The BSA bicycle division, BSA Cycles Ltd., including the BSA cycle dealer network was sold to Raleigh in 1957.[31] Raleigh initially continued bicycle production in Birmingham at Coventry Road, Sheldon, Birmingham 26 into the early 1960s using up BSA parts but as time went on more stock Raleigh parts and fittings were used, some continuing to bear the 'piled arms' stamp. TI Group owners of the British Cycle Corporation bought Raleigh in 1960 thus gaining access to the BSA brand. Bicycles bearing the BSA name are currently manufactured and distributed within India by TI Cycles of India but have no direct connection to the original Birmingham BSA company. In 1960, Daimler was sold off to Jaguar. 1961 was the centenary year of the BSA Group and in recognition of this milestone the company magazine produced an anniversary issue of BSA Group News in June BSA Centenary 1861–1961 in which many of the achievements of the Group were celebrated. This year also saw the end of military rifle production, however BSA still continued to make sporting guns. In 1986 BSA Guns was liquidated, the assets bought and renamed BSA Guns (UK) Ltd. The company continues to make air rifles and shotguns, and is still based in Small Heath in Birmingham. Norton-Villiers-Triumph This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (August 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Main article: Norton Villiers Triumph The Group continued to expand and acquire throughout the 1950s, but by 1965 competition from Japan (in the shape of companies like Honda, Yamaha and Suzuki) and Europe from Jawa / CZ, Bultaco and Husqvarna was eroding BSA's market share. The BSA (and Triumph range) were no longer aligned with the markets; mopeds were displacing scooter sales and the trials and scrambles areas were now the preserve of European two-strokes. Some poor marketing decisions and expensive projects contributed to substantial losses. For example, the development and production investment of the Ariel 3, an ultra stable 3-wheel moped, was not recouped by sales; the loss has been estimated at £2 million. Furthermore, BSA failed to take seriously the threat that key-start Japanese motor cycles might completely destroy the market for kick-started BSA motor cycles. In 1968, BSA announced many changes to its product line of singles, twins and the new three-cylinder machine named the "Rocket three" for the 1969 model year. It now concentrated on the more promising USA, and to a lesser extent, Canadian, markets. However, despite the adding of modern accessories, for example, turn signals and even differing versions of the A65 twins for home and export sale, the damage had been done and the end was near. Reorganisation in 1971 concentrated motorcycle production at Meriden, Triumph's site, with production of components and engines at BSA's Small Heath. At the same time there were redundancies and the selling of assets. Barclays Bank arranged financial backing to the tune of £10 million. Upgrades and service bulletins continued until 1972, but the less service-intensive Japanese bikes had by then flooded the market on both sides of the Atlantic. The merger with Norton Villers was started in late 1972, and for a brief time a Norton 500 single was built with the B50-based unit-single engine, but few if any were sold publicly. The BSA unit single B50's 500 cc enjoyed much improvement in the hands of the CCM motorcycle company allowing the basic BSA design to continue until the mid to late 1970s in a competitive form all over Europe. The final BSA range was just four models: Gold Star 500, 650 Thunderbolt/Lightning and the 750 cc Rocket Three. By 1972, BSA was so moribund that, with bankruptcy imminent, its motorcycle businesses were merged (as part of a government-initiated rescue plan) with the Manganese Bronze company, Norton-Villiers, to become NVT, headed by Dennis Poore. The intention was to produce and market Norton and Triumph motorcycles at home and abroad; but Poore's rationalisation led to redundancies of two-thirds of the workforce. In response, the Triumph workers at Meriden set up their own cooperative. This left poor with neither BSA nor Triumph, and the sole NVT model was the Norton Commando. Although this machine won the Motor Cycle News "Bike of the Year" award for several years running, nothing could hide the fact that the Commando was an old design, being a pre-unit pushrod parallel-twin. In exchange for its motorcycle businesses, Manganese Bronze received BSA Group's non-motorcycle-related divisions—namely, Carbodies. Although the BSA name was left out of the new company's name, a few products continued to be made carrying it until 1973. However, the plan involved the axing of some brands, large redundancies and consolidation of production at two sites. This scheme to rescue and combine Norton, BSA and Triumph failed in the face of worker resistance. Norton's and BSA's factories were eventually shut down, while Triumph staggered on to fail four years later. BSA logo TrademarksMotorcycles Rights went to Norton Villiers Triumph and on its liquidation were purchased by a new company formed by management and named BSA Company Limited. Guns Rights were acquired by Gamo for its new subsidiary BSA Guns (UK) Limited ProductsBicycles According to Charles Spencer, BSA was manufacturing the "Delta" bicycle circa 1869. In 1880 the company was approached to manufacture the "Otto Dicycle". An initial contract was signed to produce 210 and a further contract followed for a further 200. In all it is believed that a total of 953 Otto machines were made. BSA then went into bicycle production on their own account, the first machines to their own specification being exhibited at the 1881 Stanley Show. BSA went on to design and manufacture a "safety" bicycle (patent:15,342 of 1884). BSA was also producing tricycles and a licence was obtained in 1885 to manufacture ball bearings. BSA ceased bicycle manufacture in 1887 because of the demand for arms. Bicycle component manufacture commenced in 1894 and BSA continued to supply the bicycle trade up to 1936. The company recommenced bicycle manufacture on their own account again in 1908 and these were exhibited at the Stanley Show in 1909.[32] Bicycle manufacture was what led BSA into motorcycles. BSA produced bicycles for both the police and military and notably a folding bicycle for the British Army during World War I[33][34] and the more well known folding Paratroopers bicycle during World War II. BSA supplied the Irish Army with bicycles after 1922. BSA manufactured a range of bicycles from utility roadsters through to racing bicycles. The BSA range of Sports bicycles expanded in the 1930s following the granting of a patent for a new lighter design of seat lug in 1929[35] and tandems were introduced into the BSA bicycle range as well. BSA had a reputation for quality and durability and their components were more expensive that either Chater-Lea or Brampton. BSA launched a high end club cyclists machine in the early 1930s initially branded as the "Super-eeze". Never slow to avail of publicity BSA sponsored the great Australian cyclist Hubert Opperman [36] and re-branded the top of the range machine the "Opperman" model.[37][38] A less expensive range of clubman lightweight machines was introduced from 1936 with the "Cyclo" 3 speed derailleur equipped "Clubman". Subtle changes were made to the range, most models being equipped with "Russ" patent forks [39] and some models were made for only two seasons. This all stopped around September 1939 with the outbreak of war. A revised catalogue with a much reduced range was issued in March 1940 which also saw the launch of the BSA "Streamlight" model.[40] A novel all white bicycle [41] was produced for the blackout but had disappeared from a severely reduced bicycle range the details of which were circulated to dealers from December 1941. BSA had ceased production of their 3 speed hub gear in 1939 and production appears to have started again by 1945 although with a black finish instead of chromium plating. BSA bought Sunbeam in 1943 and produced Sunbeam bicycles using up existing frames and parts and using BSA components for the missing bits. The first BSA produced Sunbeam catalogue was published in 1949[42] Post war BSA expanded their bicycle range but faced problems of shortages of raw materials such as steel and was required to export a lot of their manufactured output in order to get a Government licence to purchase the necessary raw materials. The company moved bicycle production to the new Waverley Works after World War II. BSA continued to innovate introducing the 4 Star derailleur gear in 1949[43] along with an associated 4-speed 'unit' or cassette hub. The derailleur design was altered from 1950[44] and was certainly available up to 1953 but was not a great success. BSA bought New Hudson in 1950[45] and started to manufacture and sell New Hudson branded machines as well as Sunbeam. It appears that the top of the range BSA lightweight club cyclist machine was the "Gold Column" and this appears to have been changed into the BSA "Tour of Britain" model following the success of the BSA Professional Cycling Team in the 1952 Tour of Britain race. The "Tour of Britain" model was heavily promoted in the BSA 1953 sales literature. The factory made "Tour of Britain" model was not the same as those ridden by the professional team. Only eight machines were crafted for the professional team and none of the components appear to have been standard BSA parts. 1953 saw BSA separate the bicycle / motorcar and motorcycle business into different holdings. The good times were coming to an end and demand for bicycles fell with the end of rationing in 1954.[46] James Leek, managing director of BSA Cycles Ltd was suffering ill health and he retired in 1956, the same year the BSA Chairman, Sir Bernard Docker,[47] was removed from the BSA Board. Jack Sangster who had joined the BSA Board in 1951 following the purchase of his company Triumph Motorcycles became Chairman. The bicycle manufacturing business BSA Cycles Ltd was sold to Raleigh Industries in 1957. Motorcycles from 1910 BSA Motorcycles Ltd Industry Motorcycle Fate effectively bankrupt Successor Norton-Villiers-Triumph Founded 1919 Defunct 1972 Parent BSA BSA Motorcycles were made by BSA Cycles Ltd, under the BSA parent, up until 1953 when the motorcycle business was moved into holding BSA Motorcycles Ltd. The first instance of intention to produce motorcycles was reported in The Motor Cycle, a British motorcycling journal, in July 1906.[48] The first wholly BSA motorcycle, the 3½ H.P.[49] was built in 1910 and displayed at the first Olympia Show, London on 21 November in that year. Sir Hallewell Rogers, BSA Chairman, had informed the shareholders at the Company's 1910 AGM in Birmingham "We have decided to put a motor-bicycle on the market for the coming season .... These machines will be on exhibit at the Cycle and Motor Show on November 21st, after which date we look forward to commencing delivery".[3] The machines were available for the 1911 season and entire production sold out. BSA had previously acquired a commercially available engine in 1905 and fitted it to one of their bicycle frames and discovered at first hand the problems that needed to be overcome. BSA Cycles Ltd was set up as a subsidiary company in 1919 under Managing Director Charles Hyde to manufacture both bicycles and motorcycles.[3] BSA produced their only two-stroke motorcycle design for the 1928 season, the 1.74 H.P. Model A28 with two speed gearbox.[50] It was produced as the A29 and A30 the following two years and became the A31 with a three-speed gearbox in 1931, the last year of production. The post-war 'Bantam' was a German DKW design, part of war reparation, and not a true BSA design. BSA motorcycles were sold as affordable motorcycles with reasonable performance for the average user. BSA stressed the reliability of their machines, the availability of spares and dealer support. The motorcycles were a mixture of sidevalve and OHV engines offering different performance for different roles, e.g. hauling a sidecar. The bulk of use would be for commuting. BSA motorcycles were also popular with "fleet buyers" in Britain, who (for example) used the Bantams for telegram delivery for the Post Office or motorcycle/sidecar combinations for AA patrols The Automobile Association (AA) breakdown help services. This mass market appeal meant they could claim "one in four is a BSA" on advertising. Machines with better specifications were available for those who wanted more performance or for competition work. Initially, after the Second World War, BSA motorcycles were not generally seen as racing machines, compared to the likes of Norton. In the immediate post-war period few were entered in races such as the TT races, though this changed dramatically in the Junior Clubman event (smaller engine motorcycles racing over some 3 or 4 laps around one of the Isle of Man courses). In 1947 there were but a couple of BSA mounted riders, but by 1952 BSA were in the majority and in 1956 the makeup was 53 BSA, 1 Norton and 1 Velocette. To improve US sales, in 1954, for example, BSA entered a team of riders in the 200 mile Daytona beach race with a mixture of single cylinder Gold Stars and twin cylinder Shooting Stars assembled by Roland Pike. The BSA team riders took first, second, third, fourth, and fifth places with two more riders finishing at 8th and 16th. This was the first case of a one brand sweep.[51] The BSA factory experienced success in the sport of motocross with Jeff Smith riding a B40 to capture the 1964 and 1965 FIM 500 cc Motocross World Championships.[52][53] It would be the last year the title would be won by a four-stroke machine until the mid-1990s. A BSA motocross machine was often colloquially known as a "Beezer." Birmingham rocker Steve Gibbons released a song "BSA" on his 1980 album "Saints & Sinners" as a tribute to the Gold Star. He still plays this song with his band and often performs on the Isle of Man at the TT races. Motorcycle modelsMain article: list of BSA motorcycles Pre World War II 1935 BSA Blue Star 3½ hpModel EModel A28C10 sidevalve 250 cc 1938 on design by Val PageG14 1000 cc V-twinBlue StarEmpire StarSilver StarGold StarSloperM20 (500cc):as the WD (War Department) M20 the motorcycle of the British Army in World War IIM21 (600cc): the big brother of the M20, also used by the British Army in World War II Post World War II 1957 BSA Golden Flash 650 1969 BSA Royal Star A series Twins (four-stroke, pushrod parallel twins) A7 A7 Shooting Star - 500cc pre-unit construction A10 - 650cc pre-unit construction A10 Golden FlashA10 Super FlashA10 Road RocketA10 Super RocketA10 Rocket Gold Star A50 - 500cc unit construction A50R Royal StarA50C CycloneA50W Wasp A65 - 650cc unit construction A65 Star TwinA65R RocketA65T ThunderboltA65L LightningA65S SpitfireA65H HornetA65F Firebird Scrambler A70L Lightning 750 Triples (four-stroke, pushrod, three-cylinder engines) - The BSA Rocket 3/Triumph Trident were developed together. The Rocket 3 shares a majority of engine components and cycle parts with the Trident T150, but has forward-inclined cylinder barrels, BSA frame and cycle parts. A75R Rocket3 750A75RV Rocket3 750 - 5 speedA75V Rocket3 750 - 5 speed Singles (Four-stroke single cylinder) C25 BarracudaB25 Starfire - 250cc unit constructionB25FS FleetstarB25 SS Gold StarBSA B31 singleB32 Gold StarB33B34 Gold StarB40 350 Star - 350cc unit constructionB40 SS90B44 VictorB44 B44SS Shooting StarB44VS Victor Special B50 B50SS Gold Star 500B50T Victor TrialsB50MX Motocross C series (Four-stroke 250 cc single-cylinder). C10C11/C11G: 12 hp (9 kW) - 70 mph (110 km/h) - 85mpg - weight 250 lb (113 kg). The C11 used a C10 motor fitted with an overhead valve cylinder head. The C11 frame was almost unchanged until 1951 when BSA added plunger rear suspension. Early gearboxes were weak and unreliable. The C11G was available with a three ratio gearbox and rigid frame or a four ratio gearbox and a plunger frame. Both models had better front brakes than earlier models. This model was a common commuter motorcycle, and many survive today. C12 (1956–1958). 249 cc OHV Used the C11G engine, fitted with an alternator and swinging fork (known as swinging arm) rear suspension. 1959 BSA C15 Star C15 Star - 250cc unit constructionC15T TrialsC15S ScramblerC15SS80 Sports Star 80C15 Sportsman D series (Two-stroke single cylinder. See BSA Bantam for details) D1 Bantam - 125cc unit-constructionD3 Bantam MajorD5 Bantam SuperD7 Bantam SuperD10 Silver Bantam, Bantam Supreme, Bantam Sports, BushmanD13D14/4 Bantam Supreme, Bantam Sports, Bushman - 175ccB175 Bantam Sports, Bushman Others (may include some export versions of models listed above) B31 Twin (350 cc). B31 frame fitted with a Triumph 3T motor to produce this BSA B31 Twin. Very few units were produced, probably prototypes.BSA BarracudaBSA BeagleBSA Boxer - 1979 - c.1981 the sports version of the 50cc range (Beaver, Boxer, Brigand, GT50). The engine was by Moto Morini.[54]BSA GT50 (renamed from the Boxer)BSA Beaver (the standard road version)BSA Tracker 125/175 - late 70s moto-cross style product by NVT with Yamaha two stroke engine.BSA Dandy 70BSA Sunbeam (Scooters, also produced as Triumph TS1, TW2 Tigress) 175B1250B2 BSA StarfireBSA Rocket ScramblerBSA Rocket Gold StarBSA FuryBSA HornetWinged Wheel (auxiliary power unit for bicycles)T65 Thunderbolt (essentially a Triumph TR6P with BSA Badges) Military vehiclesBSA Scout armoured car."Type G Apparatus", Folding paratrooper bicycle, 32 1⁄2 pounds (14.7 kg) with parachute. Military firearmsSnider–Enfield rifleMartini–Henry rifleLee–Metford rifleLewis gunLee–Enfield rifle.303 RAF BrowningHispano-Suiza cannonOerlikon 20mm cannonSten submachine gunBoys anti-tank rifleBesa machine gunBSA experimental model 1949 pump-action machine carbineADEN cannonL1A1 SLR Civilian firearmsThe 1906 war office pattern rifle[55]The Sportsman series of .22 Long Rifle bolt-action riflesVarious Martini action target .22lr rifles[56]The Ralock and Armatic semi automatic .22lr rifles[57]Various bolt action hunting rifles ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ SCOOTER Scooter de catégorie cyclomoteur. Scooters GT Kymco Xciting. Un maxi-scooter de marque BMW. Un scooter (du verbe anglais « to scoot » signifiant « patiner ») ou scooteur (Québec), est un véhicule motorisé routier à deux ou trois roues caractérisé par des roues de faible diamètre, un cadre ouvert formant plancher (un large espace entre les roues permet d’y placer les pieds et éventuellement des bagages) et un carénage. Selon sa cylindrée, le scooter entre dans la catégorie des cyclomoteurs, jusqu'à 50 cm3 ou des motocyclettes au-delà de cette cylindrée. On parle de maxi-scooter, ou maxiscooter, quand la cylindrée dépasse 250 cm3 et un gabarit plus large que le scooter normal ce qui nécessite d'avoir un permis spécifique1. Depuis le milieu des années 2000 se développe le marché des scooters à trois roues qui allient cylindrée au-delà de 125 cm3 et peuvent se conduire, en France, avec un permis de catégorie B. Historiquement à moteur thermique, les constructeurs proposent de plus en plus des scooters électriques. Les scooters sont souvent équipés d'un variateur de vitesse mécanique et d'un embrayage avec boîte de vitesses automatique. C'est un véhicule d'autant plus utile en ville en évitant de fréquents changements de rapports de vitesse. Leur maniabilité et gabarit les rend très populaires en Europe, en particulier en Italie où la Vespa et la Lambretta font partie de l'imagerie populaire, mais aussi dans d'autres régions du monde comme certains pays d'Asie (Inde, Chine, Japon et Philippines entre autres) où c'est un mode de locomotion économique. Permettant de se faufiler dans les bouchons, ils sont aussi privilégiés dans les grandes villes. Histoire Le premier véhicule s'apparentant à un scooter a été fabriqué en 1902 par la marque française Auto-Fauteuil2. En 1903, les premiers scooters ont aussi leurs ancêtres aux États-Unis, lorsque Cushman and Salsbury ont créé quelques-uns des premiers deux-roues motorisés qui incarnent le scooter moderne. La firme Salsbury produisit le premier scooter automatique avec une transmission variable continue (TVC). En 1922, l'actrice Gaby Morlay fut photographiée sur un petit engin baptisé « scooter », cette photographie fut publiée dans l'Histoire de l'automobile et du cycle éditée par le magazine L'Illustration. La légende de cette photo était la suivante : « En 1922, parmi les automobiles à deux roues, on vit apparaître la plus petite de toutes, le scooter. C'est là un terme anglo-saxon, qui appartient à l'argot américain. Il signifie à peu près : qui court, qui file, et s'appliquait à un instrument amusant, en vérité un grand jouet. C'était la pédalette dont se servaient les enfants, à laquelle on avait appliqué un petit moteur à explosion. C'était une motocyclette pour rire, ou pour sourire. Mais elle n'a pas vécu ». Le léger Cushman, ramassé et peu pratique, a été utilisé par les forces armées des États-Unis dans le corps de parachutiste comme véhicule terrestre durant la Seconde Guerre mondiale. Ce modèle très utilisé sur les aéroports militaires américains par les mécaniciens et armuriers a probablement inspiré les ingénieurs de Piaggio qui entretenaient les avions américains basés en Italie (1945). La Vespa, premier scooter vraiment populaire. La Vespa, originellement produite par Piaggio après guerre a rapidement popularisé le scooter à moteur lorsqu'un moyen de locomotion économe était nécessaire. Construit à base de pièces d'avions avec des techniques aéronautiques et supprimant la courroie en installant le moteur dans l'axe de la roue aboutissant à une redéfinition du véhicule pour trente-cinq ans. En dépit de la suprématie de Vespa sur le marché du scooter, il y eut compétition avec Lambretta, qui offrait des modèles rivalisant avec ceux de Vespa. La première vague de scooters, des années 1950 au milieu des années 1970, constitue un véritable phénomène de société ; chaque pays voit naître des dizaines de constructeurs locaux, y compris les grandes marques nationales de motocycles européennes, plus ou moins bien inspirés. Partout, des clubs d'utilisateurs se forment et organisent promenades, rallye et concours. Jugés dangereux par les parents, supplantés dans le cœur de la jeunesse par les nouvelles motos de loisirs japonaises qui envahissent l'Europe dans la seconde moitié des années 1970, les scooters connaissent une « traversée du désert », à l'exception notable de la Vespa, appréciée des coursiers et des professionnels pour ses aspects pratiques et sa robustesse proverbiale. Dans les années 1980, de nouvelles versions de scooters ont été lancées sur le marché, avec un certain succès populaire, particulièrement au Japon et en Extrême-Orient. Cette nouvelle vague de scooters a commencé à s'étoffer en devenant plus sportifs, en améliorant les parties cycles. Le style classique de la Vespa reste très populaire. En revanche, il reste le plus commun et le plus copié de tous les dessins de scooter. Pratiquement, tous les constructeurs aujourd'hui proposent deux styles dans leurs gamme, un style « rétro », l'autre plus sport et moderne. Maxi-scooter Vu l'engouement pour les « petits » scooters, les constructeurs se sont lancés dans le « maxi » qui par opposition propose une plus grosse cylindrée et puissance. Tous les constructeurs s'y sont mis petit à petit : Suzuki avec le Burgman 650, Yamaha avec son T-Max 500 en 2001 puis 530, régulièrement modèle le plus vendu de la3, Honda avec le Silver Wing 600 ou encore Kawasaki avec le J300. Le plus puissant à ce jour est l'Aprilia SRV avec 850 cm3 dépassant les 200 km/h en vitesse de pointe4. En 2013, BMW présente un modèle de maxiscooter à propulsion électrique5. Scooter électrique Scooter électrique en train de charger devant un magasin de Suzhou en Chine. Article détaillé : Scooter électrique. Un scooter électrique est un scooter muni d'un moteur électrique alimenté par des batteries. Ce type de véhicule encore peu répandu en France existe depuis les années 2000 et sa technologie est parfaitement maitrisée. Les scooters électriques sont très populaires dans de nombreux pays, notamment en Asie.[réf. souhaitée] D'autres concepts peuvent être inventés et se rapprochant du scooter comme l'initiative d'un chinois qui a conçu un scooter électrique à partir d'une valise. Son produit permet de parcourir cinquante à soixante kilomètres sur la batterie intégrée6. Scooter à trois roues Scooter trois roues 50 cm3 Deltascoot. Plusieurs configurations sont possibles, avec notamment deux roues placées sur l'avant ou deux roues à l'arrière, et ces scooters peuvent être soit pendulaires (comme une moto) soit non inclinables (comme une voiture). Le principal intérêt des deux roues sur l'avant est l'augmentation de l'adhérence du véhicule. Le passage en courbe peut être plus rapide et rassurer le conducteur sur route mouillée, mais ces scooters sont plutôt lourds et chers. Le principal intérêt des deux roues non inclinables sur l'arrière est de maintenir l'engin droit, à l'arrêt comme en roulant. Les virages se prennent généralement plus lentement pour limiter la force centrifuge et ainsi préserver le confort. Scooter à quatre roues En 2010, La marque suisse Quadro a présenté un concept de scooter à quatre roues inclinables : le 4D. En novembre 2014, la version définitive est présentée : le Quadro 4. Il est homologué L5e grâce à un train avant avec un écartement supérieur à 460 mm et pour que les deux roues arrière soient considérées par la réglementation comme une roue unique, l'écartement est réduit à 450 mm. Image populaireLe scooter incarne la douceur de vivre à l'italienne, c'est-à-dire une notion de liberté, de plaisir et d'indépendance[réf. nécessaire], mais également les mods (contraction de « modernist »), un mouvement de la jeunesse (en) anglaise7 – plus précisément autour de Brighton issu des années 1960-1970 – a utilisé le scooter comme un véritable signe de reconnaissance. Ils se déplaçaient en meute, et avaient la particularité d'orner leurs véhicules de plusieurs rétroviseurs et de phares. Thème: Publicité, Epoque: Rétro (1900-1979), Dimensions: 40 x 60 cm, Impression: Couleur

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